NASA plans first 2033’s to realize the first expedition to Phobos , after which in 2039 th and 2043 th would follow two missions lowering the human crew of the Red Planet.
While Musk predicted over the next 40 to 100 years to raise capital on Mars with a million people, NASA is planning the 70th anniversary of the first “small / large” step on the moon by Armstrong, to organize the first landing of people on Red planet.
Although Mars is the focus of several NASA projects actually their main engine, long time nothing has been officially disclosed specific plans for their flight to the Red Planet. But Mars in some interesting way to link politicians, scientists, engineers – in the state sphere (NASA) and private sector (SpaceX). When you mention Mars, then between Congress and the White House stop inconsistencies. Also, if there is a topic about which candidates for president in the November election, Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton, disagreed, that’s exactly Mars. In the United States, as can be seen from this angle, there is a national consensus that the next major destination of America’s Mars rather than the moon, and that there should be gone not only to lower the people of Mars, but that they pioneering thoughts should strike the foundations for the start of the colonization of Mars. Of course, when you talk about a national consensus, a big question is how much you actually consult popular opinion on these issues, but it is evident that many eyes on that side of the ocean are confined to Mars.
Red Planet awaiting their heads researchers
When mentioned such attachment of politicians Red Planet, it should be said that everyone knows that it is a special project in which many of those who now sit in Congress or the White House probably or no experience, or even experience no longer be where you are now, you will be held accountable if something goes wrong, or if you show that from the treasury need much more money than in their mandate or time was planned. On the one hand, all of Mars, but none as Congress and the White House is ready to sign a check for a huge amount of money to achieve the goal.
Also, when you place the question of how to get to Mars, starting here different considerations. Someone says that Mars should be reached directly, so as it was done during the program “Apollo”. Launches with a series of super-carriers SLS orbit around the Earth to form a complex Martian (GB) and go towards the Red Planet. Of course, before they reach the people there, you need to send certain infrastructure – a module which will be welcomed by researchers at the place of landing of the first expedition. However, others say – let’s first fly to Mars to see how technology and people will submit interplanetary flights, so if everything passes without problem, then we fly to Mars. Third suggesting that preparations for the flight to Mars may be carried into orbit around the moon, where it should be drawn up MK and from there head to Mars. There are those who believe that the missions in deep space, to an asteroid or first to Phobos (most satellite of Mars ) would be a real prelude to further conquer the Red Planet.
When these four options for flight to Mars will compare easily perceive their big differences, in every possible aspect – technical, technological, organizational, project, financial and above all, in terms of risk to the mission. However, what is common to each of the variants is the use of super-rocket SLS. It is the alpha and omega of all the plans of NASA over the years to come. The success of its research is of fundamental importance, as any launch from the first designated as EM-1 (ie first research mission). It is planned for late 2018, but it is certain that it will be pushed back a few months, maybe longer. During the EM-1 mission to the Moon will be launched spacecraft Orion, with a European service module. After three days Orion arrives at the elliptical orbit around the moon with parameters 100 h 70.000 kilometers, where it will be six days. During the return to Earth, the Orion capsule would be exposed to huge thermodynamic stresses; it is expected that its surface must withstand temperatures of about 2,800 degrees Celsius .
At this point, the mission EM-1 is the only one that is fully developed and certain. Yet no one certainly can not say that missions will follow after EM-1, but the position of NASA has until the end of 2029’s, etc. Blok 2 rocket SLS, that is, its strongest version with a payload of 130 tonnes to be ready for the first launch. Also increasingly criticized mission test piece asteroid will automatically be withdrawn near the moon is still planned for 2025.
Achilles heel of launchers SLS (as any super-heavy rocket) is the price and the overall profitability of the project, and the number of launches that annually could hardly exceed two cosmic launch. With such pace of launches will be needed on the SLS to collect enough points to be considered valid for the full launcher that could one day to take people to Mars.
What is the strategy of NASA on the issue of human flight to Mars? From mid-2015 NASA is working on a strategy that encompasses three stages. In the first, a team of astronauts 2033 th will land on Phobos , most satellite of Mars , and its superficial realize the first round remote probing of the surface of the Red Planet. The first landing of men on Mars is planned for the second stage and should be done in the 2039’s, for in the year 2043, during the third stage, to monitor and second descent. Within this plan, from 2018 to 2046 should be achieved 41 launch of rocket carrier SLS, it means an average of one every nine months. When it comes to the exploration of Mars, the NASA program from 2028 to 2046 covering 32 missions SLS
We mentioned that SLS is a key element of all plans related to NASA flight of people to Mars. Despite SLS, Orion spacecraft is also important. But what should be emphasized is that although praised apparatus specializes in deep space flight, Orion is not intended for flight from Earth-Mars-Earth. Cosmic ships designed to dvomodularna base (command + model service model) with a total useful capacity of less than 20 cubic meters, just not favorable for long-term residence povekjechlena crew. The scenario for the flight to Mars, the role of Orion, whose resources allow maximum flight duration of up to four weeks is reduced to transport crew from Earth to the Ministry of Culture, which will be built in orbit around the moon. Also, when the crew would be returned from Mars orbit the moon will wait Orion to restore researchers from the Red Planet back to take.
The third pillar of the project for the flight to Mars is the module for long-term stay of astronauts. It astronauts would be found practically all the time during the flight to Mars orbit operation and during the return. Here it is and so on. MTV – Martian transport system – svoevrsten sevisen or instrument module, which will be based engine-power systems vital to all operations during transplanetarnata and orbital phase of the mission. Of course, there’s the lander, landing apparatus, and modules that the surface will welcome top researchers.
it is clear that in terms of the flight to Mars, the exploration of Mars is quite complex task in every way. Therefore, NASA proposed two models for flight to Mars. The first is so called. SEP-chemical model, and the other is based on a hybrid option. Both scenarios assume a total duration mission to Mars than 500 days, including 220 days spent on the planet’s surface and applying the combined technology of solar electric propulsion (SEP) and conventional chemical plants. Technically, these models differ from the capacity of the drive system, since the electric force of SEP-chemical system is 214 kW, while the hybrid 425 kW. The main difference is that during the mission of SEP-type chemistry first will be automatically transported everything necessary for the life of the crew of cis-lunar orbit around Mars. When everything arrives, will start the mission with a human crew, using plant a combination of liquid oxygen and methane. Unlike SEP-chemical, hybrid variant predicts the orbit around the moon, to Mars together to fly people and equipment necessary for their stay on the Red Planet. At this stage, as stated, the crew of astronauts 2033 th first down on Phobos , and six years later, in 2039 and on Mars.
Of great importance for the success of the Mars mission is the automatic lowering of the planet’s surface in a number of Länder, modules and vehicles with which the astronauts who arrive late, you can explore large areas around the place of descent. The construction of first base on Mars will resemble the development of polar base in the Antarctic, but in this case all the necessary infrastructure will have to be delivered accurately to a specific location where you will arrive later astronauts.
Both models include a total of 32 launches of carrier rocket SLS within the program for a flight to Phobos in 2033, and two further landers on Mars in 2039 and 2043. SEP-chemical transport model allows the utility burden of 27 to 72 tons, while the capacity of the hybrid option is 48 tons. Flight to Phobos , SEP-chemical model includes ten launches rocket SLS, two more than the hybrid option. For the first flight to Mars would take 12 launch of SLS (14 in the hybrid version), while the other down in 2043 requires ten launches in both variants.
Both variants require eight launches rocket SLS between first mission (Blok 1 / EM 1) in 2018 and the following missions as of flight Blok 1B / EM-8 planned for 2027. In 2028 starts the strongest version SLS (Blok-2), with capacity of 130 tons, a series of 32 missions for flight to Phobos and two landers to Mars until 2046, when another expedition should return to Earth.
In both versions of the flight to Mars application of spacecraft Orion is limited to transport astronauts to the cis-lunar orbit, where it will meet Martian complex, as well as their transport to Earth from the same orbit when they return from Mars . For transplanetarniot flight in both directions crucial will be the so-called transit module for placement of the crew – MTN or TransHab. Divided into four levels, the concept of MTN module is based on the technology of inflation (to a diameter of about eight meters).
TransHab – module for housing the astronauts during the flight to Mars and back. Flight of Phobos would be a mission with great risk and complexity that the present point is not easy to understand. Talking about the fact that the orbit around the moon over five years will be formed two interplanetary complexes (the first without the crew and the other with astronauts) weighing 394.5 tons which is equivalent to the mass of the International Cosmic Station ISS.
Mission to Phobos , starting from 2028, it is planned orbit around Earth to be launched within the framework of special missions, module life of the crew of Phobos (PHM), investigative vehicle (REV) and propulzioni blocks of type SEP. These blocks will be assembled in orbit around the moon, then in 2030 without complex interplanetary crew will go to Phobos . Then in 2031 the orbit of the moon should be formed another complex to transport astronauts to Phobos composed of modules to accommodate crew MTN, rocket block transfer of the complex from orbit around the moon transplanetarniot flight to Mars (etc. TMI Unit) and rocket grade crossing of the complex from transplanetarnoto travel orbit around Mars (sulfide block). When this complex will be assembled, Orion will arrive there in 2033 with a four crew that will go in the module MTN, where he will stay during transplanetarniot flight through interplanetary space. While astronauts fly to Phobos , the Mars orbit will await the first complex of modules PMH, PEV and SEP. Module their stay RMN then lowered to Phobos , and when the crew arrives in orbit around Mars, will come to the merger of the two complexes and astronauts will become PEV, then descend into the module PMH. The Phobos , astronauts team will deal with geological research satellite of Mars and its surface will monitor the processes on Mars and its atmosphere. The return of astronauts from Phobos to Earth is planned for 2035. By doing this, you’ll be ready for the first pitch down the people of Mars.
During the mission Phobos starts unmanned launch within the program mission to Mars for the first landing of men on Mars in 2039. After returning astronauts from Phobos in 2035 planned module life MTH crew to remain in orbit around the moon and wait for the next, the first manned Mars so that it will be used again, but now as part of the Martian complex. Sure, a few teams astronauts will conduct detailed service module will replace whatever is necessary and ensure the module for re transplanetaren flight to Mars.When Martian complex will be formed on the moon orbit in 2038 with Orion arrives team of four astronauts who in 2039 would leave the cis-lunar orbit on a journey to Mars. The return to Earth of the first team Marsonauti is planned for 2042. At that time, the moon’s orbit is completed another Martian complex, with a crew which in 2043 will go to Mars. The mass of Mars complex in orbit around the moon would amount to 483,2 tons, which would require ten launches rocket carrier SLS. In 2046 with another Orion crew will return to take from orbit around the moon, where the module MTH arrives after returning from Mars.
As seen practically starting from 2018, NASA began an ambitious program to launch SLS carrier with a primary goal in the period between 2033 and 2046 to perform three expeditions – one on Phobos and two on the Red Planet.